Most common mechanisms of HPV infection: How is human papillomavirus transmitted?

Papillomavirus infection (PVI) - belongs to the group of human pathogens (separately transmitted from person to person).

The route of infection is determined by a number of options for the development of events: through sexual contact, through blood, through family means (with a latent form of the disease - "genital warts"chicken").

How is human papillomavirus transmitted

Method of infection

As mentioned above, there are only three main ways of transmission - through sexual contact, through blood, through household means.

Penetrating through the protective barrier of the skin, mucous membranes and the circulatory system, the HPV virus has extremely negative impacts on the patient's health.

Typically, a person experiences:

  1. Persistent weakness.
  2. Feeling of nausea, heaviness in the mind.
  3. Pain syndrome.
  4. Problems with the urinary and reproductive systems (difficulty urinating, severe pain in the perineum).
  5. Burning sensation in the groin.
  6. Dizziness due to frequent increase in body temperature.
  7. General impairment of the body's protective functions (frequent colds, long recovery time after illness).
  8. Itching of the skin, accompanied by the appearance of papillomas.

In order to recognize the presence of a viral infection and consult a doctor in time, it is necessary to take into account the prerequisites for the occurrence of this disease.

Prerequisites for infection

The most common prerequisites for the appearance of HPV include:

  1. Weakened immunity.
  2. The occurrence of other chronic diseases reduces the body's resistance to various types of external attacks.
  3. We're talking about hepatitis, human immunodeficiency (HIV), cardiovascular disease, genetic defects, rare inherited forms of the disease.
  4. Promiscuous sex.
  5. Unprotected sex.
  6. Infection from relatives in daily life: when using dishes, bed sheets, towels, kissing, hugging.
  7. Use of public places of culture and entertainment.
  8. Visit beauty salons.
  9. Sharing personal items: combs, nail accessories.


Timely vaccination will protect against the most aggressive viruses.

Transmission routes

The papilloma virus is transmitted by body contact, face-to-face (implantation from infected surfaces), with the help of cerebrospinal fluid (blood, saliva, sweat).

Therefore, if someone in the household is sick, it is necessary to regularly treat all surfaces with a special disinfectant, observe strict rules of personal contact and monitor the condition of the skin (even small marks can become the original area of Damage).

Is it possible to get HPV through household contact?

Papillomavirus infection is completely transmitted through common objects, as well as through saliva. This must not be forgotten if someone in the house is sick.

Distribution mechanism:

  1. Kiss, hug. With saliva and sweat, PVI is passed from person to person. This can happen because the virus moves freely through the mucous membranes, present in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. When using personal hygiene items of the sick person.
  3. When shaking hands. The microscopic cells of the skin can be excellent transmitters of infection.
  4. When sharing utensils.
  5. When transferring objects and objects from sick people to healthy people (this type of infection is very difficult to withstand the impact of environmental factors).

Can HPV be sexually transmitted?

Since mucous membranes, skin and their derivatives (secretions, blood vessels, saliva) are carriers of genetic material, it is possible to become infected with human papillomavirus through sexual contact; as well as when using public baths, saunas.

Transmission mechanism:

  1. Directly during sex (this is especially true of oral and anal sex).
  2. When sharing showers, baths, saunas. Without proper antiseptic and antibacterial treatment, such places will be breeding ground for all kinds of infections.
  3. When using underwear, partner's clothes (especially for women who like to wear men's shirts, t-shirts, shorts, home shorts).

Can the virus be passed from mother to child?

The transmission of the disease from mother to child is called "vertical graft route". This type of transmission of the papilloma virus is one of the most dangerous, as it causes damage to a child's body and mind.

After treatment for HPV, especially in the early stages (1 trimeter), certain doctors order abortions for medical reasons.

Automatic sterilization

Self-infection is only possible if untreated hygiene items are used. Examples: razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers and similar items.

With this contagious form of the papilloma virus, the patient does not feel discomfort for a long time and leads a normal life. And when the first symptoms of the disease appeared (very similar to trivial overwork), he ignored them without going to the doctor.

What types of HPV are the most dangerous?

The most dangerous types of human papillomavirus (HPV) include types 16 and 18. They have strains that cause the appearance of malignancies - cancerous tumors that, when they grow, can metastasize. .

The most common manifestations of exposure to a virus strain are the occurrence of diseases such as: cervical cancer, infertility, lung and bronchial changes, acute deficiency of immunoglobulins.

Note! Cervical cancer can only occur due to the strongest form of the virus. Most papillomas are not dangerous.


To detect the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in the body, some of the most sophisticated hardware techniques will help.

  • Colposcopy. Colposcope is a medical device that allows you to accurately determine changes in the mucosa of the genitourinary system: detect inflammation, lesions and the spread of viruses, bacteria and fungi. Its use to determine the presence of HPV in the body is used to ultimately confirm the diagnosis. This device is capable of: magnifying less than 30 times, finding the source of inflammation, determining its nature, taking direct scrapes at the infected area.
  • PCR test. This laboratory method is a differential diagnosis of this type of disease. PCR makes it difficult to determine the type of virus as well as the route of infection. For this analysis, it is necessary to sample biological material: blood, urine, sperm.
  • Digene check. A modern diagnostic technique is based on separating a small area of affected skin for study. Using this method, medical professionals can tell with 100% accuracy what type of virus is present in the body, its concentration, whether it is reactive or not, and whether it is sensitive to the drug. Antiviral or not.
  • Cytology. This is a study of the problem at the cellular level. For this, the upper layer of the papilloma is removed, a separate part of the mucous membrane is taken. With the help of a heavy-duty microscope and a basic set of reagents, lab assistants study the behavior of the virus, its effects on the body (making predictions), the extent of damagefor internal body systems.
  • Histological diagnosis. The aim of this technique is to study morphological changes in tissues. Materials for the study were obtained by biopsy.


Treatment of human papillomavirus includes strict adherence to a strict sexual abstinence regimen, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulators, vitamin complexes, and drugs to reduce the impact of the virus on the body. body.

You should also limit healthy people's access to personal belongings, hygiene products, dishes and bedding. When viral malignancies appear, corrective treatment or surgical intervention with a long recovery period is performed.

How to prevent disease

The main ways to prevent HPV are:

  • Observe the rules of hygiene and provide living space in the house.
  • The use of contraceptives.
  • Control your own health from specialists.
  • The use of personal hygiene products for the right purpose, not transferred to a third party.
  • Do not go to places with a higher risk of infection: baths, saunas, swimming pools, water parks, massage parlors and beauty salons.
  • Protects the skin from interaction with a large number of external factors.
  • Protect your health by isolating from people who are suffering from infectious diseases, viruses, skin diseases.

It is simply impossible to cope with a complex viral infection on your own. Medical control, timely complaint for qualified help to a wide group of specialists will be the first and most serious step to solving the current problem.

If such a problem occurs, one of the family members should immediately get a routine diagnosis and follow all the doctor's instructions to avoid the spread of the virus. In addition, we should not forget about the precautions that will help prevent infection.